# How To Write A Formal Lab Report

**How To Write A Formal Lab Report** – Name: SM Collaborator: KC Official Lab Report C125 Experimental Chemistry I Part 20082 October 27, 2017 Chemical Measurements and Density of Solids INTRODUCTION In chemistry and some other sciences, it is very important to know and understand how to bury data. Much of the information displayed on the graph represents several different parts of the big picture. In order to interpret the information provided, the experimenter must understand the concepts provided. Instead, the x-axis is called the abscissa. It is the quantity that controls the independent variable. The y-axis is a quantity measured in a laboratory. Once plotted, it shows the person that if one number in the manipulated variable is different, it can affect many things. Each axis must also be labeled with appropriate units or attributes to mean something. Linear relationship between variables x and y. This results in a “best fit” line. This equation is as follows. y=mx+b (1) Each letter represents a different variable. x and y are the data points plotted. b is the y-intercept and m is the slope angle. Slope is the change in both points. The equation is as follows. Slope (m)=∆y/∆x (2) This leads to the extrapolation and interpolation of the equation of the line. The inset is the point within the best fit on the graph. Extrapolation is a prediction of the best line. The lab used extrapolation and interpolation to determine the mass of the metal using a volume based on the density given by the best fit. The inquiry-based lab used similar concepts. The equation d=m/v (3) was used to determine the density of the unknown metal. The mass was calculated by weighing the unknown metal. The volume was calculated using the displacement of water in a measuring cylinder. By finding the density, the metal can be identified. By completing these experiments, one will learn about the use of Excel for chemistry. The individual will be involved in learning how to interpret the graph for chemistry related needs. Chemists often do measurements to reach a conclusion. Therefore, chemistry is an experimental science. Because it is experimental, there is room for error. For each result, it is necessary to identify the error. This can be done by calculating the percentage error. Percent error =(|experimental value – literature value|)/literature value The experimental value is the value after the experiment is completed and the number calculated by the subject. Literary value is what it really should be. Accuracy and precision are used to describe the output of the data. Precision is the degree to which an experiment can be repeated and the results nearly identical. Accuracy is if the data is close to literature values. The standard deviation is a mean that can be calculated using the following equation. (4) statistics.about/od/Formulas/ss/The-Standard-Deviation-Formula.htm The result should be written in the form “mean ± standard deviation”. The mean is calculated by averaging all the data. This leads to the rounding rule. Traditionally, numbers 5-9 are rounded up. For example, 1 would be 1. A statistically more reliable rounding method is to round only the digits 6-9 so that the numbers 0-4 are rounded down. However, number 5 is a bit more complicated. If the digit comes before the 5 and has no non-zero digits, it is the target digit. If the target number is even, it is rounded down. If the target number is odd, it is rounded up. For example, 1 would be 1 and 1 would be 1. The purpose of this chemical measuring lab was to learn which measuring vessel is the most accurate and how to use that vessel. To determine the most accurate, several calculations were made. This includes reading the meniscus correctly. The meniscus is a U-shaped figure at the top of the material being measured. To read one correctly, you need to read the bottom of the meniscus to get an accurate measurement. After achieving the correct chemical measurement, a person will find the most accurate measuring device. While each device is still subject to error, this lab helps calculate the most accurate device. Experimental data Table 1c: Measuring device: 10 ml measuring cylinder. Recommended Katlyn weighing vessel Continuous weighing data Empty water density 64 +10 mL 71 .067195 g/mL +20 mL 78 .691315 g/mL +30 mL 85 .6990267 g/mL +400 mL 9 100 mL data sheet 1d: measuring device 10 m. . Measured by Sydney weigh container serial weight data Empty water density 51 +10 ml 60 .9263 g/ml +20 ml 70 .9672 g/ml +30 ml 80 .9555 g/ml +40 ml 85 .8582 g/ml Serial data Weigh container Density of water empty 67 +10 ml 77 .98483 g/ml +20 ml 87 .98323 g/ml +30 ml 97 .9742 g/ml +40 ml 106 .97997 g/ml Weighing container Data on serial weighing Density of empty water 28 +10 ml 38 1/ ml +20 ml 48 . /ml +30 ml 58 .99474 g/ml +40 ml 67 .99223 g/ml Water temperature for density measurement was 22ºC. The book value for this temperature is 0/ml. This was stated in the 90th edition of the CRC Handbook. The percentage error is calculated using the formula (|Experimental value – Literature value|)/Literature value (10) Data table 2: Composite results: Density of water by determination. It is concluded that the least accurate measuring device is: 50 ml beaker, 25 ml Volume device: Beaker 50 ml 25 ml measuring capsule 10 ml measuring capsule 10 ml measuring pipette Average density (g/ml) 0.7431 g/ml 0.9268 g/ml 0.9806 g /ml 0.997175 g/ml Standard deviation from the mean value (g/ml) 0.1262 g/ml 0.0485 g/ml .004773g/ml .006842g/ml Average density ± standard deviation (g/0ml) .7± g/ml /ml .93±0 g/ml .980±0 g/ml .997±0 Percentage error 25% 7 % 1% 0% measuring cylinder, 10 ml measuring cylinder and finally 10 ml measuring pipette. From least accurate to most accurate volume measurements are: 50 ml beaker, 25 ml measuring cylinder, 10 ml measuring pipette and finally 10 ml measuring cylinder. To find the density of an unknown metal by displacement of water, you first need a method. It was simple enough; find the mass, find the volume, then divide the mass by the volume. The mass of the unknown was 20. The volume of water was only 2 ml. This is the volume. d=20/2(11) After dividing the mass by the volume, you get the answer 10/ml. With this answer, many people would assume that this unknown metal is silver, but the percentage error is often overlooked. The true identity of this metal is aluminum. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The density of the unknown metal had negligible error in the determination of the unknown. Error rates were not calculated. The actual density of aluminum is 2 g/ml. If there were many trials on this experiment, a large percentage error could be avoided. Data Table 1-2 lists the smallest and most accurate volume measuring devices. The purpose of this experiment was to find the most accurate and precise measuring instruments. The smallest and least accurate measuring device was the 50 ml beaker, while the most accurate measuring device was the 10 ml pipette. The most accurate measuring device was a 10 ml measuring cylinder. Even with percentage errors, this conclusion holds true. This experiment was very important because knowing the most accurate and precise volume measuring devices can lead to more accurate and precise results. REFERENCES Zhao, H., & Anliker, K. (2016). Experimental chemistry 1: Laboratory manual (13th ed.). Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology. Kathleen Coffin Lab Partner Kelsey Lab Partner Brooklyn Lab Partner

Individual laboratory measurements. After the graph is constructed, the person shows that if one

## How To Write A Formal Lab Report

Each letter represents a different variable. x and y are the data points plotted. b is y-

#### Chemistry Lab Report Abstract

Cross section, and m is slope. Slope is the change in both points. The equation is as follows.

Upload your comments here to get a cash offer in minutes and get paid in less than 48 hours. In business, scientific research and industry, the concise and clear presentation of scientific results to a wide audience is becoming more important. This project requires students to create a formal lab report that demonstrates critical thinking and written communication skills through the analysis of experimental data.

Directions: Write a formal lab report based on the data and calculations from Lab 3: Stoichiometry. The report should introduce the experiment, summarize and analyze the data collected, discuss the results and provide a conclusion. Although no word count is specified, the report should be long enough to communicate the experiment, necessary results, and relevant discussion.

### Solved Empirical Formula Formal Lab Reporthow To Write The

All students must submit an individual report, but may do experiments and calculations with other students. Note that this assignment is separate from the regular research assignments. Students are encouraged to use their summary sheet as a guide when preparing a formal research report.

The official report summarizes and analyzes the results at a high level. In this case, it is a group of experiments performed as part of Lab 3: Stoichiometrie. Students should avoid referring to the lab as a title and its parts if possible (ie, Part A, Part B). Instead, students should carefully consider the main goals of the experiments (ie, what

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