How To Write Abstract For Lab Report

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How To Write Abstract For Lab Report – Official Lab Report C125 Experimental Chemistry I Section 20500 IUPUI November 09, 2018 Finding an Unknown Concentration Using Titration INTRODUCTION Most people have experienced stomach problems in their lives. One of the most common stomach problems is having too much stomach acid. This problem can be easily treated by taking antacids (base) such as Tums, which can reduce the amount of acid in the stomach. According to belmarrahealth, stomach acid helps to process food and kill harmful bacteria, however, excess stomach acid can lead to serious problems if left untreated. Acids and bases can be found in normal everyday foods, and taking large amounts of either can cause many problems. So how does one know how much of each thing is needed to offset the other? How much concentration can be reduced by a given amount of acid or base? They use a process called acid-base titration. Acids are molecules that produce H+ ions in aqueous solution, bases on the other hand produce OH ions. In an acid-base reaction, H+ ions and OH- ions combine together and reduce the reaction, usually producing water and salt. For example= NaOH (base) + C2H4O2 (acid)  NaC2H3O2 (salt) + H20 (water) (1) The purpose of acid-base titration is to find the concentration of an unknown acid or base using a known amount. In the example given above (1), in theory, a sufficient amount of NaOH will reduce C2H4O2; This is called the equilibrium point of the titration. However, because of the very small measurements that humans can make, it is impossible to find a true point of equilibrium; This is where pH indicators come into play. pH indicators can be used to find the end point of the titration, the end point can be seen by the color change of the solution. In the above example (1), if the color of the solution changes, it means that there is a small amount of NaOH in the solution. The concentration of the unknown can be found using molarity. Molarity is the number of moles of solute in one liter of solution (mol/L). A better way in today’s world than to concentrate on percentages. Percent concentration can be obtained by volume percent concentration or mass percent concentration. Vinegar, used in this experiment, is expressed in mass, the mass of solute by mass of solution is multiplied by 100%. The purpose of this lab was to determine the concentration of acetic acid in vinegar. In this study, a known concentration of NaOH was used to measure an unknown concentration of acetic acid in vinegar. The chemical formula for the reaction is as follows = NaOH (base) + C2H4O2 (acid)  NaC2H3O2 (salt) + H20 (water) The pH indicator used in this lab was phenolphthalein which turned pink at the end. The weight percentage of acetic acid in vinegar was obtained by taking the weight of acetic acid and dividing it by the total weight of the sample (g). Fill the burette with 0 +/- 0/L NaOH up to 50ml. Crude was first titrated using a 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask with 10mL of vinegar and 3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator. The NaOH volume of this crude titration was used as a guide for the actual titrations. After titration, a 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask was weighed. Next, about 10 ml of vinegar is added to the flask using a 10ml graduated cylinder. Next, about 10ml of deionized water is added to the flask and 3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator (Note: Adding too much indicator can reduce accuracy). NaOH was dropped from the burette into the Erlenmeyer flask until a pale pink solution formed and stood for 30 seconds. Procedures are carried out after two repetitions, three times in total using the same amount of 3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator. A burette containing NaOH was filled when needed. DATA AND STATISTICS 0% deviation. The test had a margin of error of 4 percent. These three tests were considered to determine the average weight % of acetic acid. However, experiment 2 reached the end using a smaller dose of NaOH. There was a difference of about 4mL in trial 2 compared to trials 1 and 3. This can be explained by measurement error; the user may have misread the burette and noted the wrong volume of NaOH. Another possible explanation is that the Erlenmeyer flask was not cleaned properly with dirty water. This may cause some particles to remain in the flask from a previous test or experiment, which may cause the solution to reach the end earlier than expected. A common error in all three experiments was over-titration. Although extreme precautions were taken when the vinegar was almost absorbed, one drop of NaOH changed the solution from colorless to dark pink. Adding additional amounts of NaOH can result in the use of more NaOH than was required in the storage area. If you relate this to the mass of acetic acid in the vinegar (g), the weight of acetic acid calculated may be higher than the one used in the end. A 4% error was not bad at all, however, it could be improved. Few process errors could be eliminated, leading to a better result. First, each Erlenmeyer flask should be rinsed thoroughly with deionized water to remove any material left over from the previous experiment; this can lead to a direct result. An improvement would be to do another crude titration to use a better volume as a guide. If the volume of NaOH used in the two green titrations was accurate, it would be best to use those values ​​as a guide for the actual titrations. This will result in a reduced number of overestimates. Finally, a few drops of NaOH adhere to the sides of the Erlenmeyer flask due to the continuous shaking of the flask. A drop was also left hanging outside the burette after the titration was completed. Simple process errors like these can be eliminated to provide better results and outcomes in the future. Although there were some errors in this experiment, a percentage error of 4% is acceptable considering the titration and standard deviation. The main source of error may have come from test 2 as discussed earlier, which may have been completed by other tests; however, since only three experiments were performed, it would be useful to consider the data from experiment 2 as well. CONCLUSION The molarity of the NaOH solution used in this article was 0 +/0/L. The average weight % of acetic acid in the vinegar was 4 +/- .2%. The percentage error is calculated, compared to the manufacturer’s listed weight of 5% acetic acid in vinegar, and 4%. The standard deviation was slightly higher due to errors in test 2, but the estimate still resulted in a number close to the theoretical percentage (5%). In order for this test to be more accurate and clear in the future, additional tests can be performed to reduce errors or eliminate other tests. This test was important because it can be useful to find the concentration of an unknown substance to find the concentration of stomach acid or acid waste to reduce it. REFERENCES Pre-Lab Power Point Vinegar Analysis, Canvas, 2016. Experimental Chemistry I, Lab Handbook, Zhao, 2016. Libretexts. “Meaning.” Chemistry LibreTexts, National Science Foundation, 25 July 2016, chem.libretexts/Demos, _Techniques, _and_Experiments/General_Lab_Techniques/ titration.

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How To Write Abstract For Lab Report

How To Write Abstract For Lab Report

Indicators can be used to find the end point of the titration, the end point can be noted

Writing An Abstract For A Lab Report

By changing the color of the solution. In the above example (1), if color is the solution

How To Write Abstract For Lab Report

Many people have faced stomach problems in their life. One of the most common stomach problems is having too much stomach acid. This problem can be easily treated by taking antacids (base) such as Tums, which can reduce the amount of acid in the stomach. According to belmarrahealth.com, stomach acid helps to process food and kill harmful bacteria, however, excess stomach acid can lead to serious problems if left untreated. Acids and bases can be found in normal everyday foods, and taking large amounts of either can cause many problems. So how does one know how much of each thing is needed to offset the other? How much concentration can be reduced by a given amount of acid or base? They use a process called acid-base titration. Acids are molecules that produce H+ ions in aqueous solution, bases on the other hand produce OH ions. In an acid-base reaction, H+ ions and OH- ions join together and reduce the reaction, the reaction usually producing water.

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